Fundamentals of Power System Protection

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Numerical Protection Power Swing C. Paithankar has a rich experience of over 30 years in the field of power systems. Of the many papers he has published in journals, fifteen have appeared in international journals. Bhide has nearly three decades of teaching experience. His research interest is applying techniques of Artificial Intelligence to power system protection schemes. EasyEngineering team try to Helping the students and others who cannot afford buying books is our aim. For any quarries, Disclaimer are requested to kindly contact us , We assured you we will do our best.

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Fundamentals of Power System Protection

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September 6. Grewal Book Free Download April Gupta Book Free March Trending on EasyEngineering. June Breaker operation times are from 2 cycles to 8 cycles.

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Instantaneous relay operating times are about 1 cycle. For example, a 1-cycle relay and a 2-cycle breaker provide a fault clearing time of 3 cycles about 50 ms. Sensitivity is the ability of the protection system to detect even the smallest faults within the protected zone.

It is important to ensure the detection of high-impedance faults or the reduced contribution to faults from small, dispersed generators. Primary protection is the first line of defense. The figure shows the one-line diagram of a power system section. We may observe that we use breakers to connect adjacent system elements.

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Using the breakers in this manner permits the protection system to completely isolate a faulted element. An exception is the case of the generator-transformer units. Generators have dedicated step-up transformers in this arrangement, and we may omit the breaker between them. The zones indicated with dotted lines are the primary protection zones. The significance of these zones is that a fault inside a zone implies the tripping of all the breakers belonging to that zone.

Protective relays define these zones.

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Adjacent protection zones overlap to provide full primary protection coverage in the power system. A fault in the overlapping areas produces the tripping of more breakers than the breakers needed to isolate the fault. We need the overlapping areas to be as small as possible. Primary protection operation should be as fast as possible, preferably instantaneous, for stability and power quality reasons. Relays use system currents and voltages as input signals. We will see during the course that current information is instrumental for the relays in determining fault location.

Then, current transformer location defines the limits of the primary protection zones in many cases. In lower-voltage systems, we use bushing-type current transformers installed inside breaker and transformer bushings. In this case, protection zones overlap around the breaker, and the breaker lies in the ovelapping zone. A breaker fault produces the tripping of all breakers at both zones.

In higher-voltage installations, we use multiwinding current transformers. We use different secondary windings for the relays of the two protection zones. The overlapping zone is inside the current transformer. The probability of an overlapping-zone fault is very low. The price we pay for this arrangement is that it could be necessary to trip some Zone B breakers with Zone A relays to completely disconnect some Zone B faults.

The figure shows the one-line diagram of a power system and helps illustrate the concept of backup protection. The tie circuit breaker T is assumed to work normally closed. For a fault at CD, Line Breakers 5 and 6 should operate as the primary protection. If Protection 5 fails to operate, with existing technology we have two possibilities for cutting the fault current contribution from A, B, and F: open Breakers 1, 3, and 8; or open Breakers 2 and T.

In any case, backup protection needs time delay. The primary protection needs to be given an opportunity to operate before using the decision of a backup operation. This is why we use separate ground-fault protection in the power system. The highly dangerous three-phase fault is a less frequent fault.

A particular three-phase fault that presents special protection problems is that created by maintenance personnel leaving grounding switches or grounding equipment connected after line maintenance. About 80 percent of short circuits in overhead transmission lines are temporary. Automatic reclosing reconnects the line when protection trips the breaker and the fault dissapears.

Many faults can evolve. These begin as single-line-ground faults, evolve into line-line- ground faults, and eventually become three-phase faults.

There are also combined faults. A broken conductor can touch a line tower or ground on one side, for example, creating a combination open phase and ground fault at the same point. This set is called ZERO-sequence.