Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks
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FAQ Policy. About this Textbook Metamorphic rocks are one of the three classes of rocks. Show all.
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The most typical metamorphism transforms sedimentary rocks to metamorphic rocks by addition of heat during mountain building or by a large volume of magma in the crust. One example is slate. Slate was originally a black mud laid down on the bottom of the sea or lake. Fossils Andreas can sometimes be found in it but they are often squashed.
Due to the action of plate tectonics, compression, stress and shearing forces over long periods of time, rocks can be essentially warped and deformed, causing them to be compacted into a smaller volume of space. As a consequence, metamorphic rocks are always more dense than their original material, and also much less susceptible to erosional breakdown. As the Earth's plates move over geologic time, a plate containing igneous or sedimentary rock may become subducted under another plate.
Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks | Kurt Bucher | Springer
The sheer weight of the material above it can cause the rock to undergo metamorphism. The bulk of the mantle rocks, therefore, meet the criteria of metamorphic rocks.
Metamorphic ultramafic rocks represent the largest volume of rocks of the planet. Sedimentary carbonate rocks consist predominantly of carbonate minerals as the name implies. There are two main types of carbonate rocks, dolomites and limestones. As the rocks often also contain variable amounts of quartz they are sometimes referred to as siliceous dolomites and siliceous limestones. Metapelites are probably the most distinguished family of metamorphic rocks.
Typical examples include characteristic rocks and minerals such as chlorite—kyanite—schist, staurolite—garnet micaschist, chloritoid—garnet micaschist, kyanite—staurolite schist, biotite—garnet—cordierite gneiss, sillimanite—biotite gneiss and orthopyroxene—garnet granulite. In the Anglo-American literature, this group of sedimentary rocks is better known as argillaceous carbonate rocks, calcareous sediments, calcic pelitic rocks, or calcareous pelites.
The sediments are widespread and typical of shelf and platform areas. An average composition of a platform marl shale is given in Table 2. Metamorphic mafic rocks e.
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Metamorphic assemblages in mafic rocks are particularly useful in defining the intensity of metamorphism within the metamorphic facies concept Chap. Metamorphosed quartzofeldspathic rocks are derived from graywacke sandstone and siltstone clastic sediments; Table 2. They constitute the largest portion of the continental crust. For instance, quartzofeldspathic gneisses metasedimentary paragneisses and granitic orthogneisses , commonly migmatitic, are the dominant rock type of the continents, forming extensive terranes.
Because the main metamorphic constituents — Qtz, Kfs, Pl, Bt, Ms, Hbl — occur over a wide range of P—T conditions, and because Al-silicates are typically absent due to a relatively high silica content Table 2.
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However, in this chapter we examine the progressive metamorphism of metagraywacke-type rocks and describe selected mineralogical features that can be used to determine metamorphic grade in metagranitoid rocks. Title Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks. Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg.