Statistical Process Control For Quality Improvement: A Training Guide To Learning SPC
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The chart, in addition to help correct process deviations, also assisted in the identification of the moment of exchange of the filter plates. Over the course of time they will degrade and leak, no longer being able to achieve the necessary compression pressure.
After three cycles of research, there was an improvement in the stability of the process, which reflected in energy gain natural gas consumption. The SPC becomes therefore, a tool to collect facts and data with a focus on continuous improvement. The tool allows instant visualization of tendencies in the chart.
It was also included in the application, the record of the alert of out of control points special causes and any corrective actions to be typed by operators. The data were to be available for further exploration and analysis with the purpose of improvement or innovation in the process. As a result of the action research, it was proposed a framework Figure 3 to guide the implementation of SPC charts. The framework presents the main CSF to be executed in four stages, planning, definition, implementation and consolidation; involving three actors, senior management, the SPC team and the facilitator.
The colored boxes indicate more than one actor responsibilities. After the consolidation phase, the SPC should be incorporated into the dynamics of Continuous Improvement of the company, providing facts and data to identify improvement opportunities. The framework should be applied, mainly, to the first implementation of the control chart and as a guide to evaluate existing implementations to verify if the CSFs were considered, which could contribute to their support. This framework and CSFs can be used by other companies because they deal with needs and general objectives and not specific to the chemical industry where the action research was conducted.
The CSFs for the implementation of the SPC can be related to three types of actions for implementation Table 6 : managerial actions, involving the support and establishment of appropriate infrastructure and culture, so that the implementation occurs and that the use of SPC can be sustained; organizational actions, involving the structuring of the project and the team to implementation activities; and technical actions and training, promoting the knowledge and dissemination of SPC tools, so that those involved feel safe for the implementation. Through action research, it was implemented a control chart in a chemical plant.
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It was identified the need for the use of nineteen success factors Table 2 considered critical, identified in the literature, for the effective implementation and sustained use of control charts. Each of the factors was tested in action research, isolated or combined, which helped in proposing a framework to guide the implementation and continued use.
An identified feature was the need for the chart to be physically next to the operator and displayed constantly. Regarding the use of computer monitors, if possible, it should be a unique monitor to the chart. The framework, its steps and the recognition of its importance constitute a reference to guide control charts implementation in other chemical plants and other companies.
The effort required for each factor in each step may differ depending on the history and site characteristics implementation. It was also possible to prove in practice the relevance of the success factors to support the technical traditional focus on SPC implementations. How to cite this article: Toledo, J. Production , 27 , e Antony, J. A conceptual framework for the effective implementation of statistical process control.
Business Process Management Journal, 9 4 , Key ingredients for the effective implementation of statistical process control. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 49 6 , Chen, S. Performance evaluation for introducing statistical process control to the liquid crystal display industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 1 , Chowdhury, J. Quality-Control moves upstream in CPI plants.
Chemical Engineering Albany, N. Coughlan, P. Action research for operations management. Does, R. A framework for implementation of statistical process control. International Journal of Quality Science, 2 3 , Elg, M. Implementing statistical process control: an organizational perspective. Gallagher, W. SPC application in the chemical industry. Gordon, M. Factors associated with the success of the implementation of statistical process control.
Grigg, N. Developing statistical thinking for performance improvement in the food industry. The role of control charts in promoting organisational learning: New perspectives from a food industry study. The TQM Magazine, 19 1 , Haslego, C. Apply statistical process control with intelligence.
Chemical Engineering, 3 , Hradesky, J. International Organization for Standardization. ISO quality management systems: requirements. Geneva: ISO.
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Krumwiede, D. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 7 1 , Kumar, A. Doing it right the second time. Lim, S. A conceptual readiness framework for statistical process control deployment. The implementation of statistical process control in the food industry: a systematic review. Statistical Process Control in the food industry—A systematic review and future research agenda. Cybernetics and Informatics, 14 1 , Mahanti, R.
Critical success factors for implementing statistical process control in the software industry. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 19 3 , Mason, B. Statistical process control: an essential ingredient for improving service and manufacturing quality.
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Montgomery, D. Phyanthamilkumaran, S. The role of cultural change in the relationship between critical factors with the success of Statistical Process Control SPC projects. Putri, T. International Journal of Automotive Industry and Management, 2, Putri, N.
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A case of implementing SPC in a pulp mill. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 4 3 , Rohani, J. The relationship between statistical process control critical success factors and performance: a structural equation modeling approach. Statistical process control success factors and performance: an exploratory analysis. The development of a survey instrument for measuring a relationship between statistical process control success factors and performance.
Jurnal Mekanikal, 30, Rungasamy, S.
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Critical success factors for SPC implementation in UK small and medium enterprises: some key findings from a survey. The TQM Magazine, 14 4 , Rungtusanatham, M. Sharma, R. Measuring Business Excellence, 18 4 , Xie, M. Statistical techniques for quality. The TQM Magazine, 11 4 , This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Services on Demand Journal. Research Article Success factors in the implementation of statistical process control: action research in a chemical plant. Commitment and senior management responsibility Leaders must understand the use and support the implementation with financial, human resources and training and disseminate the importance of quality and the SPC. Education and training in SPC The training in concepts and techniques should be focused initially on leadership and transmitted to the organization continuously and with progressive content. Team work SPC Team There should be a specific working group with leaders, a board of directors committee and an operational team to lead, coordinate and carry out the implementation.
Identification and measurement of critical product characteristics The most critical characteristics should be selected. The characteristic can be the one that impacts the client more and generates significant quality problems. Definition and correct application of control charts selection of appropriate control chart, sampling, etc. There should be proper selection of the chart, which depends on the type of variable to be analyzed, the data to be collected and the process.
Cultural change and communication Behavioral and resistance to change issues must be considered. Operators, engineers and managers need to be aware of the benefits of the SPC for the continuous improvement of products and processes and to base its actions on facts and data. Measurement system analysis in relation to its capability and applicability The process of measuring the quality characteristics must be analyzed considering the effect of the inspector, the measuring instrument and the interactions between these factors. This analysis is essential to ensure measurement accuracy and minimize errors in the data obtained.
Process definition and prioritization A process or a stage where there is waste, rework or variability problems should be chosen. Use of facilitators or statistical experts engineers, etc. Use of computers and software for SPC The use of user-friendly software provides advantages such as less time for mathematical calculations, as well as ease of storage and data recovery.
Use of a pilot study There should be a pilot project to learn and sensitize leaders about how SPC can assist in solving problems, and show how SPC can be applied and its benefits.